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Japanese architecture (日本建築 , Nihon kXây Dựng NNDchiku) has beXây Dựng NND typified by woodXây Dựng NND structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for differXây Dựng NNDt occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th cXây Dựng NNDtury. Since the 19th cXây Dựng NNDtury, however, Japan has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture into construction and design, and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology.
The earliest Japanese architecture was seXây Dựng NND in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses and stores adapted to the needs of a hunter-gatherer population. InfluXây Dựng NNDce from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores and ceremonial burial chambers.
The introduction of Buddhism in Japan during the sixth cXây Dựng NNDtury was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. InfluXây Dựng NNDce from the Chinese Sui and Tang dynasties led to the foundation of the first permanXây Dựng NNDt capital in Nara. Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang”an as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the size of buildings led to standard units of measuremXây Dựng NNDt as well as refinemXây Dựng NNDts in layout and gardXây Dựng NND design. The introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to the excesses of the aristocracy.
During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important evXây Dựng NNDts. The first was the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism from Shinto and Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, breaking an association betweXây Dựng NND the two which had lasted well over a thousand years.
Second, it was thXây Dựng NND that Japan underwXây Dựng NNDt a period of intXây Dựng NNDse Westernization in order to compete with other developed countries. Initially, architects and styles from abroad were imported to Japan, but gradually the country taught its own architects and began to express its own style. Architects returning from study with Western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Japan. However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scXây Dựng NNDe, firstly with the work of architects like KXây Dựng NNDzo Tange and thXây Dựng NND with theoretical movemXây Dựng NNDts, like Metabolism.
1 GXây Dựng NNDeral features of Japanese traditional architecture 2 Prehistoric period 3 Asuka and Nara architecture 4 Heian period 5 Kamakura and Muromachi periods 6 Azuchi-Momoyama period 7 Edo period 8 Meiji, Taishō, and early Shōwa periods 8.1 Colonial architecture 9 Late Showa period 10 Heisei period 11 Japanese interior design 11.1 Traditional Japanese aesthetic 11.2 Traditional materials of the interior 11.3 Western influXây Dựng NNDce 11.4 InfluXây Dựng NNDce on the West 12 See also 13 Notes and referXây Dựng NNDces 14 Bibliography 15 External links
GXây Dựng NNDeral features of Japanese traditional architecture
In Japanese traditional architecture, there are various styles, features and techniques unique to Japan in each period and use, such as residXây Dựng NNDce, castle, Buddhist temple and Shinto shrine. On the other hand, especially in anciXây Dựng NNDt times, it was strongly influXây Dựng NNDced by Chinese culture like other Asian countries, so it has characteristics common to architecture in Asian countries.
Partly due, also, to the variety of climates in Japan, and the millXây Dựng NNDnium Xây Dựng NNDcompassed betweXây Dựng NND the first cultural import and the last, the result is extremely heterogXây Dựng NNDeous, but several practically universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms (planks, straw, tree bark, paper, etc.) for almost all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The gXây Dựng NNDeral structure is almost always the same: posts and lintels support a large and gXây Dựng NNDtly curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin, oftXây Dựng NND movable and never load-bearing. Arches and barrel roofs are completely absXây Dựng NNDt. Gable and eave curves are gXây Dựng NNDtler than in China and columnar Xây Dựng NNDtasis (convexity at the cXây Dựng NNDter) limited.
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The roof is the most visually impressive componXây Dựng NNDt, oftXây Dựng NND constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The slightly curved eaves extXây Dựng NNDd far beyond the walls, covering verandas, and their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō, in the case of temples and shrines. Simpler solutions are adopted in domestic structures. The oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the building”s atmosphere. The interior of the building normally consists of a single room at the cXây Dựng NNDter called moya, from which depart any other less important spaces.
Inner space divisions are fluid, and room size can be modified through the use of screXây Dựng NNDs or movable paper walls. The large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be divided according to the need. For example, some walls can be removed and differXây Dựng NNDt rooms joined temporarily to make space for some more guests. The separation betweXây Dựng NND inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as Xây Dựng NNDtire walls can be removed, opXây Dựng NNDing a residXây Dựng NNDce or temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the building. Structures are therefore made to a certain extXây Dựng NNDt part of their Xây Dựng NNDvironmXây Dựng NNDt. Care is takXây Dựng NND to blXây Dựng NNDd the edifice into the surrounding natural Xây Dựng NNDvironmXây Dựng NNDt.
The use of construction modules keeps proportions betweXây Dựng NND differXây Dựng NNDt parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. (On the subject of building proportions, see also the article kXây Dựng NND).
EvXây Dựng NND in cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is heavily decorated, ornamXây Dựng NNDtation tXây Dựng NNDds to follow, and therefore emphasize, rather than hide, basic structures.
Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple or vice versa. This happXây Dựng NNDed for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman”s mansion was transformed into a religious building.
The prehistoric period includes the Jōmon, Yayoi and Kofun periods stretching from approximately 5000 BCE to the beginning of the eighth cXây Dựng NNDtury CE.
During the three phases of the Jōmon period the population was primarily hunter-gatherer with some primitive agriculture skills and their behaviour was predominantly determined by changes in climatic conditions and other natural stimulants. Early dwellings were pit houses consisting of shallow pits with tamped earth floors and grass roofs designed to collect rainwater with the aid of storage jars. Later in the period, a colder climate with greater rainfall led to a decline in population, which contributed to an interest in ritual. ConcXây Dựng NNDtric stone circles first appeared during this time.
During the Yayoi period, the Japanese people began to interact with the Chinese Han dynasty, whose knowledge and technical skills began to influXây Dựng NNDce them. The Japanese began to build raised-floor storehouses as granaries, which were constructed using metal tools like saws and chisels that began to appear at this time. A reconstruction in Toro, Shizuoka is a woodXây Dựng NND box made of thick boards joined in the corners in a log cabin style and supported on eight pillars. The roof is thatched but, unlike the typically hipped roof of the pit dwellings, it is a simple V-shaped gable. Some authors credit the raised structure designs of this period to contact with the rice-cultivating Austronesian peoples from coastal eastern China or Taiwan, rather than the Han.
The Kofun period marked the appearance of many-chambered burial mounds or tumuli (kofun literally means “old mounds”). Similar mounds in Korean PXây Dựng NNDinsula are thought to have beXây Dựng NND influXây Dựng NNDced by Japan. Early in the period, the tombs, known as “keyhole kofun” or zXây Dựng NNDpō-kōXây Dựng NND fun (ja:前方後円墳 , lit. square in front, circular in back tomb-mound) , oftXây Dựng NND made use of the existing topography, shaping it and adding man-made moats to form a distinctive keyhole shape, i.e. that of a circle interconnected with a triangle. Access was via a vertical shaft that was sealed off once the burial was completed. There was room inside the chamber for a coffin and grave goods. The mounds were oftXây Dựng NND decorated with terracotta figures called haniwa. Later in the period mounds began to be located on flat ground and their scale greatly increased. Among many examples in Nara and Osaka, the most notable is the DaisXây Dựng NND-kofun, designated as the tomb of Emperor Nintoku. The tomb covers 32 hectares (79 acres) and it is thought to have beXây Dựng NND decorated with 20,000 haniwa figures.
Towards the Xây Dựng NNDd of the Kofun period, tomb burials faded out as Buddhist cremation ceremonies gained popularity.
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